Intracellular Indicators & Related Products

Various important cellular functions are regulated by intracellular signaling cascades, which involve multiple signaling molecules and other molecular components and are adjusted by specific interactions and regulations among these components. Signal transduction often starts with the activation of a receptor on the cell surface which subsequently triggers a cascade of second messengers in the cell. In recent years, the possibility to unravel the finer details of intracellular signaling has improved remarkably and there are now many well-studied signaling pathways within a cell (e.g. cAMP, STAT or MAPK).
The change of intracellular ion concentration is a crucial step that helps second messengers transmit information. Consequently, monitoring and control of intracellular ion concentration is a prerequisite understanding second messengers and signal transduction in living cells.

In the recent past, many different fluorescent indicators have been developed for measuring intracellular ion concentrations. These fluorescent indicators allow us to visualize signaling events within a cell in real-time and space. Fluorescent calcium indicators are important intracellular signaling molecules and of particular interest because of the essential role of calcium ions in various cellular processes such as contraction, synaptic plasticity,  secretion, immunity, development, differentiation, and gene activation.

In addition, other indicators for pH determination as well as for zinc, iron, magnesium, heavy metal and chloride ion detection are also available.