Products

Cytotoxicity Kits


PromoKine provides a selection of assa­ys for colorimetric, fluorometric or bio­luminescent determination of cytotoxic effects caused e.g. by compounds tested as drug candidates. The assays are sen­sitive, simple, reliable and fast, and are suitable for high-throughput screening in a mul­tiwell format.

The assays use different approaches to determine the amount/ratio of viable and dead cells in a population. In combination with or Cell Viability & Proliferation Assays as well as our Live/Dead Cell Staining and Apoptosis Assays, they provide reliable and quantitative results important to assess changes in cellular viability as a result of internal or external effectors influencing cell health.

 


 

 

 

Colorimetric and fluorometric LDH Cytotoxicity Kits

Based on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), our colorimetric and fluorometric LDH Cytotoxicity Kits provide a fast, sensitive, and precise alternative to the radioactive [3H]-thymidine and [51Cr] release assays.

LDH is a stable cytoplasmic enzyme present in all cells and is rapidly released into the surrounding medium when cells are damaged. In this assay, LDH activity is determined by a coupled enzymatic reaction. LDH catalyses the conversion of lactate to pyruvate, triggering an enzymatic reaction that produces either a water-soluble red formazan dye (colorimetric LDH Cytotoxicity Kit II) or an intense fluorescent product (fluorometric LDH Cytotoxicity Kit I). The increase in the amount of formazan or fluorescence produced in culture medium correlates directly to the increase in the number of lysed cells and can be analyzed spectrophotometrically or fluorometrically. The kits can be used for many different in vitro cell systems to quantify cytotoxicity and cytolysis in fast and convenient assays.


Cell Proliferation/Cytotoxicity Kit II

PromoKine’s Cell Proliferation/Cytotoxicity Kit II (fluorometric) provides an easy, rapid and quantitative method to measure cell proliferation as well as cytotoxicity. The assay is based on a nuclear dye that specifically binds to nucleic acid in the cell nucleus and emits green fluorescence. The generated fluorescent intensity is directly proportional to the cell number (viable or dead cells), which can be quantified by measuring fluorescence at Ex/Em = 480/538 nm using a fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader. This assay kit provides a just add-and-read, non-radioactive, and high-throughput method that is more sensitive than MTT, XTT, or MTS-based assays, and can detect a wide linear range of 25-60,000 cells.


Bioluminescent AK Cytotoxicity Kit

The bioluminometric AK Cytotoxicity Kit is based on the measurement of adenylate kinase (AK), a ubiquitous protein present in all cells that is rapidly released into the culture medium upon damage to the plasma membrane. The simple one-step procedure involves two chemical reactions. First, the adenylate kinase released from the damaged cells catalyses the conversion of ADP to ATP. The second reaction utilizes luciferase to catalyze a reaction between the ATP, oxygen, and luciferin producing light. The light can be measured using a luminometer or beta counter. This highly sensitive assay allows rapid quantitation of plasma membrane damage for evaluation of cell death or cytotoxicity events, and it is well suited for automation and high throughput.


Crystal Violet Cytotoxicity Assay Kit

PromoKine's Crystal Violet Cytotoxicity Assay Kit offers an excellent, reliable and efficient colorimetric method for in vitro viability/cytotoxicity studies as well as high-throughput drug toxicity screening. Crystal Violet binds to proteins and DNA and can be used to quantify an adherent, viable cell Population. The staining is directly proportional to the cell biomass and can be measured at 570 nm using a spectrophotometer or an absorbance reader (ELISA Reader). The kit also includes Doxorubicin as a positive control.


Neutral Red Cytotoxicity Assay Kit

The Neutral Red Cytotoxicity Assay Kit also provides a simple, accurate, and reproducible method to colorimetrically determine cell viability and drug cytotoxicity. The assay is based on the detection and quantitation of viable cells via the uptake of neutral red that stains lysosomes in viable cells while non-viable cells can not uptake the dye.

The Neutral Red Cytotoxicity Assay Kit offers an excellent and efficient method for in vitro cytotoxicity studies as well as high-throughput drug screening, and can detect between 5,000-50,000 cells per well. This assay provides a quantitative measurement of the number of viable cells at OD 540 nm using a spectrophotometer or an absorbance reader (ELISA Reader).
The kit also includes Doxorubicin as a positive control.


Sulforhodamine B Cytotoxicity Assay Kit

The Sulforhodamine B Cytotoxicity Assay Kit is another commonly used colorimetric method for convenient, reproducible and sensitive determination of cell viability and the cytotoxic effect of drug compounds, and has been widely used for high-throughput drug toxicity screening with different types of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. As Sulforhodamine B (SRB) binds to cellular proteins stoichiometrically, the incorporated dye released from stained cells after washing is directly proportional to the cell biomass and can be measured at 565 nm using a spectrophotometer or an absorbance reader (ELISA Reader). This assay is also independent of cell metabolic activity and therefore should show less interference with testing compounds. The assay is very sensitive and can detect between 5,000-50,000 cells per well.
The kit contains Doxorubicin as a positive control. 


Autophagy/Cytotoxicity Dual Staining Kit

Autophagy or autophagocytosis (“self-eating”) refers to a process of degradation of cytoplasmic components within lysosomes and consists of several sequential steps: sequestration, transport to lysosomes, degradation and eventual re-utilization of degradation products. This process is mediated by autophagosomes which engulf a portion of cytoplasm. Thus, autophagy is generally thought to be a nonselective degradation system regulated by many different cellular signaling pathways. Autophagy functions as a stress response upregulated by nutrient and energy starvation, oxidative stress, or other harmful conditions (such as damage to organelles, protein aggregation and infection by pathogens). Dysfunction of autophagy is associated with many human cancers and neurodegenerative diseases.

The Autophagy/Cytotoxicity Dual Staining Kit enables detection and monitoring of cellular autophagy processes and autophagic cell death/cytotoxicity using a membrane-permeable, selective autophagy stain and a fluorescent cell death marker. The kit can also be used for screening of compounds affecting autophagy and results are obtained using fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry.
An autophagy-inducing positive control reagent which increases autophagy staining serves as an experimental control.


Lysosomal Cytotoxicity Dual Staining Kit 

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles important for various cellular processes. They contain hydrolytic enzymes utilized in the metabolism of some biomolecules. The extracellular cargo (e.g. nutrients, toxins) binds to the cell membrane and is subsequently transported into membrane-bound endosomes for further degradation by lysosomes while intracellular components are transported to lysosomes through autophagy. Lysosomal dysfunction is associated with many human conditions such as aging and neurodegenerative disease.

PromoKine's Lysosomal Cytotoxicity Dual Staining Kit also contains two fluorescent probes: a membrane-permeable, selective lysosomal stain and a cell death marker. This easy-to-use  kit can be used to study the regulation of lysosomal cytotoxicity at the cellular level and to screen for compounds that affect lysosomal function. Results can be obtained using fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry.
A Positive Control which increases lysosome activity and staining serves as an experimental control.

 

 

References, Questions & Answers

Product Name Description Size Catalog Number Information Prices
LDH Cytotoxicity Kit I (fluorometric) Sensitive, fluorescent measurement of released LDH in culture medium. 500 assays PK-CA577-K314 click to select country
LDH Cytotoxicity Kit II (colorimetric) Colorimetric cytotoxicity detection 500 assays PK-CA577-K313 click to select country
AK Cytotoxicity Kit (bioluminometric) Bioluminescent cytotoxicity detection 500 assays PK-CA577-K312 click to select country
Cell Proliferation/Cytotoxicity Kit II Highly sensitive, non-radioactive assay detecting as less as 30 proliferating or necrotic cells. 1000 assays PK-CA577-K307 click to select country
Crystal Violet Cytotoxicity Assay Kit This colorimetric assay is one of the common methods used to detect cell viability or drug cytotoxicity. 1000 assays PK-CA577-K329 click to select country
Neutral Red Cytotoxicity Assay Kit This kit offers an excellent and efficient method for in vitro cytotoxicity studies as well as high-throughput drug screening. 1000 assays PK-CA577-K447 click to select country
Sulforhodamine B Cytotoxicity Assay Kit The colorimetric sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay is one of the most widely methods used to detect cell viability or drug cytotoxicity. 1000 assays PK-CA577-K943 click to select country
Autophagy/Cytotoxicity Dual Staining Kit This easy-to-use kit allows researchers to study the regulation of autophagy and cytotoxicity at the cellular level by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry in cultured cells. 50 assays PK-CA577-K449 click to select country
Lysosomal Cytotoxicity Dual Staining Kit This easy-to-use kit allows studying the regulation of lysosome and cytotoxicity at the cellular level by using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry in cultured cells. 50 assays PK-CA577-K458 click to select country