Products

Glucose Assay Kits

Glucose is a ubiquitous energy source in most organisms and plays a pivotal role in cell metabolism, cell signalling, homeostasis and other cellular processes. Malfunctions in glucose metabolism is involved in many diseases and changes of glucose levels are a key diagnostic parameter for many metabolic disorders. Thus, studying these metabolic pathways is important for development of new therapies for treatment of cancer, diabetes, obesity, inflammatory and other disorders.

Changes in energy metabolism is a biochemical fingerprint of cancer cells, representing one of the hallmarks of cancer. Even more than glutaminolysis, glycolysis is a major energy producing pathway for cancer cells to allow enhanced proliferation and stimulate tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, cancer cells exhibit increased glucose uptake to support their high proliferation rate.

Glucose is a main source for energy production in the form of ATP as well as providing metabolites for synthesis of other biomolecules. In normal cells, glucose is typically metabolized to lactate or, upon full oxidation of glucose via respiration in the mitochondria, in the end product CO2 (TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation).
Glucose metabolism in cancer cells is however primarily characterized by two major biochemical events: a dramatically increased glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, i.e. the conversion of glucose into pyruvate eventually resulting in the production of lactate - even in the presence of oxygen and fully functioning mitochondria. This process is known as the Warburg Effect. Thus, aerobic glycolysis inhibitors and other new medications targeting the metabolic enzymes required to provide proliferating cancer cells with additional energy have great potential to block the cancer progress.

Among many different methods available for measuring glucose uptake, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) has been widely used because of its structural similarity to glucose. As with glucose, 2-DG can be taken up by glucose transporters, and metabolized to 2-DG-6-phosphate (2-DG6P) which however, cannot be further metabolized, and thus accumulates in the cells. The accumulated 2-DG6P is, therefore, directly proportional to 2-DG (or glucose) uptake by cells. In PromoKine’s colorimetric Glucose Uptake Assay Kit I, the 2-DG6P is oxidized to generate NADPH, which can be determined by an enzymatic recycling amplification reaction.  In the  fluorometric Glucose Uptake Assay Kit II, the accumulated 2-DG6P is enzymatically oxidized and coupled to a probe, which generates fluorescence in the presence of NADPH.  These easy to use kits can detect glucose uptake as low as 10 pmol/well (colorimetric Assay) or 50 pmol/well (fluorometric assay), and can be used for a variety of cell types.

Our Glucose Uptake Assay Kit III is based on 2-NBDG, a fluorescent deoxyglucose analog that can be taken up by cells through glucose transporters. However, 2-NBDG cannot be fully utilized in glycolysis because of its modification and thus accumulates inside the cells. Fluorescence generated by this fluorescent glucose analog is proportional to glucose uptake by the cells and can be used to measure glucose uptake in cultured cells in response to insulin, growth factors etc. using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. To validate the assay, the kit includes the natural phenol phloretin that inhibits glucose uptake.

PromoKine's colorimetric and fluorometric  Glucose Assay Kits provide a rapid, direct and sensitive measurement of glucose in various biological samples (e.g. cells, tissues, growth medium, serum, plasma, etc.). In these high throughput-compatible assays, glucose is specifically oxidized to generate a product which reacts with a dye to generate an absorbance or a fluorescence signal which is proportional to the glucose amount.

PromoKine’s Glucose/Sucrose Assay Kit provides a convenient, fast and sensitive method for measuring glucose and sucrose levels individually from various biological samples - either colorimetrically (OD 570 nm) or fluorometrically (Ex/Em  535/587 nm).

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) has been known for a long time as a provider of reducing power (NADPH) and ribose phosphate to the cell for maintenance of redox balance and biosynthesis of nucleotides and lipids. Recently, G6PD has been shown to be also involved in apoptosis, angiogenesis and cancer - making it a promising target in cancer therapy.
It has also been demonstrated that inhibition of G6PD results in reduced cell proliferation, cell survival, and increased oxidative stress.
PromoKine's Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kits provide simple, sensitive and rapid means to detects the activity of G6PDH in a variety of samples - either colorimetrically (OD. 450 nm) or fluorometrically (Ex/Em 535/587 nm).

Product Name Description Size Catalog Number Information Prices
Glucose Assay Kit I Rapid, sensitive and high-throughput-adaptable colorimetric & fluorometric assay to determine glucose in various biological samples 100 Assays PK-CA577-K606 click to select country
Glucose Assay Kit II Rapid, sensitive and high-throughput-adaptable colorimetric assay to determine glucose in various mammalian samples 100 Assays PK-CA577-K686 click to select country
Glucose Assay Kit III Simple, ultra-sensitive, high-throughput-adaptable fluorometric assay to determine glucose in various biological samples, including cultured cells 100 Assays PK-CA577-K688 click to select country
Glucose Uptake Assay Kit I Easy-to-use highly sensitive, colorimetric kit that can detect glucose uptake as low as 10 pmol/well in adherent or suspension cells 100 assays PK-CA577-K676 click to select country
Glucose Uptake Assay Kit II Easy-to-use highly sensitive, fluorometric kit that can detect glucose uptake as low as 50 pmol/well in adherent or suspension cells 100 assays PK-CA577-K666 click to select country
Glucose Uptake Assay Kit III (FC/FM) Easy method to image and accurately measure glucose uptake in cultured cells via FACS and fluorescence microscopy 50 assays PK-CA577-K682 click to select country
Glucose/Sucrose Assay Kit Simple, fast and accurate colorimetric & fluorometric assay to measure glucose and sucrose individually in various biological samples 100 assays PK-CA577-K616 click to select country
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit I Colorimetric assay for simple, highly sensitive, high-throughput compatible quantificiation of total phosphodiesterase activity in biological samples 100 assays PK-CA577-K757 click to select country
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit II Fluorometric assay for simple, highly sensitive, high-throughput compatible quantificiation of total phosphodiesterase activity in biological samples 100 assays PK-CA577-K751 click to select country