Products

Nerve Terminal Probes

PromoKine's Nerve Terminal Probes are a series of fluorescent cationic styryl dyes developed to follow synaptic activities at neuromuscular junctions or synapses. These dyes typically have a lipophilic tail (two carbon chains) at one end and a highly hydrophilic, cationically charged head group at the other end.
These nerve terminal probes were originally called FM dyes, and now they are available from PromoKine under own trademark names depending on the wavelength of the dyes (SynapseGreen and SynapseRed).

We also offer a series of fixable nerve terminal dyes, known as AM dyes, which are closely related to the FM dyes. The primary difference between the fixable and nonfixable dyes is that the formers have an additional amino group attached to the positively-charged head group of the dyes. The amino group reacts with formaldehyde fixative, thus crosslinking the dye with membrane proteins. AM2-10, AM1-43 and AM1-44 are derivatives of SynapseGreen dyes that have relatively shorter wavelengths, while AM4-64 and AM4-65 are based on SynapseRed dyes that have relatively longer wavelengths.

When using these nerve terminal dyes, one frequent problem is the background fluorescence due to nonspecific membrane staining. Although most of the background fluorescence can be removed by repeated washings with a buffer, the problem is still significant with dyes that have a longer tail or more double bonds, particularly when the dyes are used in tissue preparations. To reduce the background fluorescence, we offer three quencher or dye-clearing agents: ADVASEP-7, a sulfonated cyclodextrin, forms a water soluble inclusion complex with SynapseGreen C4, thus leaving the dye in the aqueous phase. The dye-dextrin inclusion complex is actually much more fluorescent than the free dye in solution. However, repeated washings remove the inclusion complex and thus lower the background fluorescence. Our unique quencher, SCAS, reduces background fluorescence as soon as it is added to the preparation without the need for repeated washings. Sulforhodamine 101 has also been used to reduce SynapseGreen C4 background staining via fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET).

References, Questions & Answers

Product Name Description Size Catalog Number Information Prices
ADVASEP-7 (sulfobutyl b-cyclodextrin) For background fluorescence reduction 250 mg PK-CA707-70029 click to select country
Alpha-Bungarotoxin (from Bungarus multicinctus) Acetylcholine receptor inhibitor 1 mg PK-CA707-00010-1 click to select country
AM1-43 Fixable, activity-dependent fluorescent nerve terminal probe 1 mg PK-CA707-70024 click to select country
AM1-44 Nerve Terminal Probe 1 mg PK-CA707-70038 click to select country
AM2-10 Nerve Terminal Probe 1 mg PK-CA707-70036 click to select country
AM3-25 Lipophilic styryl dy with an amine group at the hydrophilic head 1 mg PK-CA707-70051 click to select country
AM4-64 Nerve Terminal Probe 1 mg PK-CA707-70025 click to select country
AM4-65 1 mg PK-CA707-70039 click to select country
AM4-66 Nerve Terminal Probe 1 mg PK-CA707-70050 click to select country
HM1-43 Fixable, activity-dependent fluorescent nerve terminal probe 1 mg PK-CA707-70053 click to select country
Biotin-XX-alpha-Bungarotoxin Can be used to isolate and/or image the distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junctions 500 µg PK-CA707-00017 click to select country
Fluorescein-alpha-bungarotoxin Can be used to image the distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junctions 500 µg PK-CA707-00011 click to select country
Fluorescein-alpha-bungarotoxin (special packaging) Can be used to image the distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junctions 10 x 50 µg PK-CA707-00013 click to select country
Nerve Terminal Green Staining Kit I Kit contains 5 x 1 mg SynapseGreen C4 and 250 mg ADVASEP-7 1 kit PK-CA707-70030 click to select country
Nerve Terminal Green Staining Kit II Kit contains 1 mg AM1-43 and 100 mg ADVASEP-7 1 kit PK-CA707-70031 click to select country
Nerve Terminal Green Staining Kit III Kit contains 1 mg AM1-43 and 100 mg SCAS 1 kit PK-CA707-70031-1 click to select country
Nerve Terminal Green Staining Kit IV Kit contains 5 x 1 mg SynapseGreen C4 and 100 mg Sulforhodamine 101 1 kit PK-CA707-70032 click to select country
Nerve Terminal Red Staining Kit I Kit contains 5 x 1 mg SynapseRed C2 and 250 mg ADVASEP-7 1 kit PK-CA707-70034 click to select country
Nerve Terminal Red Staining Kit II Kit contains 5 x 1 mg SynapseRed C2 and 100 mg Sulforhodamine 101 1 kit PK-CA707-70035 click to select country
SCAS 4-sulfonato calix[8]arene, sodium salt; for background fluorescence reduction 100 mg PK-CA707-70037 click to select country
Sulforhodamine 101-alpha- bungarotoxin (special package) Also known as Texas Red-alpha-bungarotoxin 10 x 50 µg PK-CA707-00016 click to select country
Sulforhodamine 101-alpha-bungarotoxin Also known as Texas Red-alpha-bungarotoxin 500 µg PK-CA707-00015 click to select country
SynapseGreen C1 Nerve Terminal Probe 5 mg PK-CA707-70042 click to select country
SynapseGreen C1 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70043 click to select country
SynapseGreen C18 (FM3-25) Nerve Terminal Probe (also known as FM3-25, a trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.)) 5 mg PK-CA707-70048 click to select country
SynapseGreen C18 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70049 click to select country
SynapseGreen C2 (FM2-10) Nerve Terminal Probe (also known as FM2-10, a trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.) 5 mg PK-CA707-70044 click to select country
SynapseGreen C2 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70045 click to select country
SynapseGreen C3 Nerve Terminal Probe 5 mg PK-CA707-70023 click to select country
SynapseGreen C3 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70026 click to select country
SynapseGreen C4 (FM1-43) Nerve Terminal Probe (also known as FM1-43, a trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.) 5 mg PK-CA707-70020 click to select country
SynapseGreen C4 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70022 click to select country
SynapseGreen C5 (FM1-84) Nerve Terminal Probe (also known as FM1-84, a trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.) 5 mg PK-CA707-70046 click to select country
SynapseGreen C5 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70047 click to select country
SynapseRed C1 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70041 click to select country
SynapseRed C1 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 mg PK-CA707-70040 click to select country
SynapseRed C2 (FM4-64) Nerve Terminal Probe (also known as FM4-64, a trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.) 5 mg PK-CA707-70021 click to select country
SynapseRed C2 (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe (also known as FM4-64, a trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.) 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70027 click to select country
SynapseRed C2M (FM5-95) Nerve Terminal Probe (also known as FM5-95, a trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.) 5 mg PK-CA707-70028 click to select country
SynapseRed C2M (special packaging) Nerve Terminal Probe 5 x 1 mg PK-CA707-70019 click to select country
Tetramethylrhodamine- alpha-bungarotoxin Can be used to image the distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junctions 500 µg PK-CA707-00012 click to select country
Tetramethylrhodamine-alpha- bungarotoxin (special package) Can be used to image the distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junctions 10 x 50 µg PK-CA707-00014 click to select country