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Lipophilic Carbocyanine Dyes

Carbocyanine dyes with long hydrocarbon chains were initially used for imaging neuronal cells in tissue preparations via retrograde labeling. Now they are widely used to label both neurons in tissues and cells in suspensions. Carbocyanine dyes have some of the highest absorbativity among fluorescent dyes and are highly fluorescent in lipid bilayers, while they are essentially non-fluorescent or only weakly fluorescent in aqueous phase. These spectral properties and the long lipophilic chains make this class of dyes ideal for staining the cytoplasmic membranes of the cells. The membrane staining is highly stable with very little dye transfer in between cells. The orange-red fluorescent DiI and its longer wavelength derivatives DiD and DiR belong to the sub-class of indocarbocyanine dyes and are far more widely used than the green fluorescent DiO, which belongs to the sub-class of oxacarbocyanine dyes. The primary reason for this is that DiO tends to be much less soluble than DiI and its derivatives. This problem has been solved by developing a new DiO derivative that is called Neuro-DiO. Neuro-DiO is an excellent green fluorescent membrane dye that can be optimally excited by the 488 Ar laser line and is more photostable than DiO. Finally, PromoKine also offers dilinoleyl carbocyanine dyes, in which two unsaturated hydrocarbon chains are attached to the nitrogens of the dyes. Dilinoleyl carbocyanines have much faster lateral diffusion rate than regular carbocyanine dyes with saturated C18 chains and thus are excellent for labeling neurons in tissues.

To facilitate the labeling of cells in suspension, a series of ready-to-use Cytoplasmic Membrane Labeling Kits with fluorescent colors from green to the infrared region are available. The labeling kits offer fast and intensely bright labeling of cells without dye precipitation.

References, Questions & Answers

Product Name Description Size Catalog Number Information Prices
DiD (DiIC18[5]) 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'- tetramethylindodicarbocyanine, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate salt 50 mg PK-CA707-60014 click to select country
DiI (or DiIC18[3]) 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate 50 mg PK-CA707-60010 click to select country
DiI in vegetable oil Otimized DiI formulation for microinjection 0.5 ml PK-CA707-60018 click to select country
Dilinoleyl DiI 1,1'-dilinoleyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (also called Fast DiI, a trademark of Molecular Probes) 5 mg PK-CA707-60034 click to select country
Dilinoleyl DiO 1,1'-dilinoleyl-3,3'-oxacarbocyanine perchlorate (also called Fast DiO, a trademark of Molecular Probes) 5 mg PK-CA707-60035 click to select country
DiO (or DiOC18[3]) 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine, perchlorate 50 mg PK-CA707-60011 click to select country
DiOC14(3), hydroxyethanesulfonate 3,3'-ditetradecyloxacarbocyanine, hydroxyethanesulfonate 50 mg PK-CA707-60012 click to select country
DiOC16(3) Lipophilic cyanine dye for staining cytoplasmic membranes 25 mg PK-CA707-60038 click to select country
DiR (DiIC18[7]) 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indotricarbocyanine Iodide 25 mg PK-CA707-60017 click to select country
DiSC2(5) (3,3-diethylthiadicarbocyanine, iodide); membrane potential probe 50 mg PK-CA707-40041 click to select country
DODC (DiOC2(5)) Nucleic acid binding, lipophilic carbocyanine dye (high purity) 50 mg PK-CA707-40040 click to select country
Neuro-DiI Improved alternative to DiI 25 mg PK-CA707-60016 click to select country
Neuro-DiI in vegetable oil Otimized formulation for microinjection 0.2 ml PK-CA707-60020 click to select country
Neuro-DiO Improved alternative to DiO 25 mg PK-CA707-60015 click to select country
Neuro-DiO in vegetable oil Otimized formulation for microinjection 0.2 ml PK-CA707-60019 click to select country